The paper recycling process..
The collection of used paper and board is the first step in the recycling process. There are different national and regional collection systems for paper. Papermakers usually buy their raw material for recycling from recovered paper merchants. These merchants may be owned by paper mills and be an integrated part of a mill company, or they may be an independent firm which specialises in particular grades or which perhaps operates in a smaller geographical area. In Europe, a small but growing amount of waste paper is now being supplied by waste management companies, which are finding it economically advantageous to sort recovered paper for recycling. This is helping to reduce the amount of paper going for landfill.

Until recently, apart from old newspapers and magazines, most recovered paper came from industrial and commercial sources, because it was the easiest, cleanest and most economical to collect. As demand for recovered paper has grown, so additional sources, such as households, need to be tapped. The collecting system in operation must be cost-effective and efficiently organised so that the necessary volumes and qualities of recovered paper can be obtained and appropriately recycled. The paper mills that depend on recovered paper must have assurance of a regular supply.

Paper for recycling has to be collected separately from other materials. It is important that it is kept separate from other waste as contaminated papers are not acceptable for recycling. If, in some cases, paper is collected together with other recyclable materials, such recovered paper must be specifically marked.


The recycling process: pulping
Broadly speaking, the final production process for recycling paper is the same as the process used for paper made from virgin fibres but, as the recovered paper fibres have already been used, they also have to be sorted and cleaned. For certain paper (e.g. graphic paper and hygienic products) ink has to be removed from the recovered paper, i.e. the fibres have to be de-inked. As a first step, recovered paper is sorted and graded then delivered to a paper mill. Having reached the paper mill, it is 'slushed' into pulp and large non-fibrous contaminants are removed (for example staples, plastic, glass etc.). The fibres are progressively cleaned and the resulting pulp is filtered and screened a number of times to make it suitable for papermaking.


The recycling process: de-inking
Before the recovered paper can be used to manufacture certain grades of paper the printing inks have to be removed to increase the whiteness and purity. The recovered paper is first dissolved in water and separated from the non-fibre impurities. The fibres are then progressively cleaned in order to obtain the pulp and during this stage the ink is removed in a flotation process where air is blown into the solution. The ink adheres to bubbles of air and rises to the surface from where it is separated. After the ink is removed, the fibre may be bleached, usually with hydrogen peroxide.

Stage 1 : Sorting the plastic
To have success with this stage, it is very important for the consumer to learn the correct disposal procedures for their trash, and do all pre-sorting necessary. For example, you can take out the corks of bottles, caps or lids, making it easier for machinery to sort waste. Plastic waste needs to be collected by the recycling company, once the plastic arrives at the recycling plant the first stage begins to sort the plastic into the specific types. Plastic recycling is more complex than metal or glass recycling because of the many different types of plastic that exists. In addition, mixed plastic cannot be used in manufacturing without delivering a poor quality product, therefore reasons why plastic recycling companies need to be thorough with its sorting methods, sorting plastic waste into different categories before going to the next stage in the recycling process.

Stage 2: Washing Waste Plastic
Once plastic waste has been identified and separated into one of its many forms the cleaning process can begin, this usually starts with washing to remove paper labels, adhesives and other impurities, all the labels on your plastic containers, bottles and even your wheelie bin need to be completely removed as these will lower the quality of the finished recycled plastic.

Stage 3: Shredding the Plastic
The shredding stage is when plastic waste is taken and loaded onto conveyor belts or directly into huge hoppers that funnel the clean scrap towards rotating metal teeth that rip the plastic into small pellets which are bagged up afterwards ready for testing.

Stage 4: Identify and classify the Plastic.
Once the shredded plastic has been bagged it is then chemically tested and labelled as to its exact specification, this rGrade of plastic can be used to add to a mix of virgin plastic in the manufacturing run, alternatively the rGrade plastic can be further recycled.

Stage 5: Extruding
This is the final stage in the recycling process of plastic. This process involves melting clean shredded plastic and extruding into the form of pellets which then go onto manufacturing the next lot of plastic products.

Reasons to Recycle Plastic
Millions of tons of plastic waste end up in landfill when the vast majority of it can be recycled, it’s all too easy for us to throw away trash without a second thought but we need to take care of our planet and not just reduce the amount of trash we bury, but also given that plastic is derived from oil a natural product with ever depleting resources, it makes sense to recycling as much as possible. Recycled products are becoming more popular and important and are growing every day, as oil exploration moves to ever more hostile and difficult to reach locations, which will of course will result in prices of products made from oil to increase.

The Process of Metal Recycling
The process of metal recycling is no different from the usual recycling procedure. The metals are sorted on the base of their properties. For example, if we would have to separate ferrous metals; then their magnetic proportion will help with separation. It is important that we should have basic knowledge about metals so that we can help in keeping the land green. The recycling process involves following steps:


1. Collection and sorting:
The first step in metal recycling is the collection of all the materials which are made up of metals. There should be an organized system for the collection of metals. Containers should be used to collect them. For that there should be recycling centers in all big cities and there should be recycling bins at home and in the shopping malls that should be taken directly to industry. The second important step is sorting the kind of metals which are good for recycling. The quality of metals matters a lot when it comes to recycling. A good recycled product can only be made if the original metals are of good quality. So leave nothing to check the quality of metal.


2. Processing:
The next step is to compact the metal. All the appliances are squeezed and squashed in the machines so that they don’t occupy that much space in conveyor belts.


3. Shredding:
After crushing and breaking the metals, shredding of metals takes place. They are broken down into small sheets or pieces so that they can be processed further with ease. The small size has large surface area and it can be melted with less energy required. Steel is usually changed into steel blocks or ingots while aluminum is processed into sheets.


4. Melting and Purification:
The next step is to melt all this scrap metal in a large furnace. Each metal has a specially designed furnace depending on its properties. The melting utilizes a lot of energy in the form of fuel still the fuel required is less in this case as compared with the making from raw material. Then after melting the metals are purified by using different methods. Electrolysis is also used for metal purification. These metal blocks are then transported to different mills for their remaking into other products. Recycling saves almost 75% of energy. The old and unwanted appliances can be exchanged with the new one or they can be given to a friend, donated to a charity or they can be taken to recycling centers to make sure that the metals are recycled and the energy along with natural resources is saved. This will decrease pollution and keep our home earth clean and green. So we should actually keep our focus on recycling.